Difference between revisions of "DEMETER"

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== Demeter ==
 
 
 
Project Leader: Jeroen, PE1RGE
 
Project Leader: Jeroen, PE1RGE
  
"Demeter" is the project-name for the HPSDR power supply. Allthough power supplies are widely available, Demeter will be specifically designed for the HPSDR project.
+
"Demeter" is the project-name for the HPSDR power supply. Although power supplies are widely available, Demeter will be specifically designed for the HPSDR project.
  
At this moment, 11th of June 2007, an inventory of wishes, specifiactions and ideas is made for the HPSDR-power supply. If you have any ideas, questions or suggestions, please feel free to E-mail me.
+
On the 13th of June 2008, Tiny Demeter is added to the Demeter page. Tiny Demeter has a simpler design. Tiny Demeter will be more suitable for experimenters and allow us to gain some experience before constructing Demeter.
  
 
Further information will be presented on this page when it becomes available.
 
Further information will be presented on this page when it becomes available.
  
 
73 Jeroen PE1RGE
 
73 Jeroen PE1RGE
 +
 +
Result of the discussion on the HPSDR mailing-list (11th June 2007):
 +
 +
'''DEMETER SPECIFICATIONS'''
 +
 +
'''Input'''
 +
* 13.8 Volt DC (always 13.8 V or is there a supply range, see remark below)
 +
* 110 Vac (mains)
 +
* 230 Vac (mains)
 +
* Battery (13.8 Volt) input with automatic switchover, [http://www.buchmann.ca/Chap5-page2.asp Depth of Discharge] Quote: "...The recommended end-of-discharge voltage for the SLA is 1.75V/cell..." '''1.75*6=10.5V (lowest voltage)''', [http://www.buchmann.ca/Chap4-page6.asp Charging the Lead Acid Battery] Quote: "...Correctly setting the cell-voltage limit is critical. A typical voltage limit is from 2.30V to 2.45V...",  '''2.45*6=14.7V (highest voltage)'''.
 +
[[Image:demeter.jpg|thumb|600px|1. Standby transformer – Used for the GPS and OCXO
 +
2. Standby rectifier and buffercapacitor
 +
3. Switch – Switches between mains and battery power
 +
4. Linear regulator
 +
5. Overvoltage protection
 +
6. Solid state (?) mains power switch
 +
7. Power transformer
 +
8. Power rectifiers and buffercapacitors (positive + negative voltage)
 +
9. Switch – Switches between battery, mains and external power
 +
10. Step-up converter
 +
11. Linear regulator +12Volt
 +
12. Overvoltage protection +12Volt
 +
13. Charger (optional)
 +
14. Step-down converter
 +
15. Linear regulator +5Volt
 +
16. Overvoltage protection +5Volt
 +
17. Inverter – generates negative supply from the positive supply
 +
18. Switch – Switches between inverter and mains power
 +
19. Linear regulator –12Volt
 +
20. Overvoltage protection –12Volt
 +
21. Passive filter
 +
22. Overvoltage protection for U++ (Could be used for a PA)
 +
23. USB-Hub – one port used for communication with Demeter
 +
24. PIC controller
 +
25. Temperature sensor(s)
 +
26. Analog to digital converter (for voltage and current)
 +
27. Analog multiplexer
 +
28. Controlled fan (forced air cooling)]]
 +
'''Input connector'''
 +
:Powerpole connector for DC 13.8 Volt
 +
:Mains connector: National standard
 +
 +
'''Output voltages'''
 +
:Remote switchable voltages
 +
:+5 Volt @ …. Amps
 +
:+12 Volt @ ….. Amps
 +
:-12 Volt @ ….. Amps
 +
 +
'''Standby supply (for GPS-engine and OCXO)'''
 +
:Constant on
 +
:+5 Volt
 +
:+15 Volt
 +
:+24 Volt (depends on OCXO used, if possible user definable/adjustable)
 +
 +
'''Output connector'''
 +
:ATX-connector
 +
:DIN 41612 (Atlas connectors)
 +
 +
'''Protection'''
 +
:Input protection (high/low voltage, polarity)
 +
:Output protection (current limiting, voltage crowbar)
 +
 +
'''Monitoring'''
 +
:Input voltage
 +
:Output voltage
 +
:Output currents
 +
:Temperature
 +
 +
'''Power supply communication'''
 +
:Atlas backplane
 +
:USB-bus
 +
:1 wire interface (controlled by a board on Atlas)
 +
:Dumb-interface using the pins T7 and T8 on the Atlas
 +
 +
'''Connection to the HPSDR'''
 +
:Using the ATX power connector, communication via the USB bus
 +
:Using the DIN41612 connector using the Atlas backplane for communication
 +
 +
'''Position of the power supply'''
 +
:On the Atlas backplane
 +
:In a separate box (outside/inside Pandora)
 +
 +
'''HPSDR configuration'''
 +
:Ozymandias - interface module
 +
:Mercury – receiver (5V @ 500mA, 12V @ 200mA, -12V not used)
 +
:Penelope – transmitter (5V @ 300mA, 12V @ 200mA, -12V not used))
 +
:Alexiares - RF Bandpass Filters
 +
:Gibraltar - frequency standard
 +
:Epimetheus - antenna and other switching
 +
 +
:Measured: Ozy + Janus: +12v @ 200mA, +5v @ 180 ma, -12v @ 70 ma
 +
 +
'''Questions/remarks'''
 +
:Switching or Linear?
 +
:Internal/External?
 +
:Power dissipation (Convection cooling/ forced air-cooling)?
 +
:Do we need computer monitoring of voltages and currents?
 +
:Include an USB-HUB (use one of the ports for the power supply communication)?
 +
:Configuration (to use or not to use the SDR-1000)? People who use it in combination with the SDR-1000 need less power from the power-supply and are using a custom built supply or the SDR-1000 power supply.
 +
:Will the 13.8Volt really be 13.8Volt or “something” between 11.0 Volt and 15 Volt?  In other words: How many people are going to use the HPSDR mobile?
 +
 +
:Linear (A “lot of heat”, not “green”, easy to construct and trouble-shoot)
 +
 +
:Switching (Less heat, more “green”, more noise, more difficult to construct)
 +
 +
:Transformers: From my opinion there will always be a normal mains-transformer, both in the switching and the linear power supply option. Building a switcher for 110Vac/230Vac is too dangerous and complicated (safety regulations) for (less experienced) home-builders. The switcher will be situated in the low-voltage part.
 +
 +
== Tiny Demeter ==
 +
 +
Based on the Teamspeak Session from 31st of May 2008 the idea arose to develop a simpler power supply. The working title for this supply became Tiny Demeter.
 +
 +
[[Image:TinyDemeter2.jpg|thumb|600px|Tiny Demeter block-diagram]]
 +
This supply could be handy for:
 +
- experimenters
 +
- people who want a simple configuration
 +
- temporary solution unitl Demeter becomes available
 +
 +
Tiny Demeter uses the station power supply as main-source. It expects a fairly well regulated 13.6 till 13.8Volts.
 +
From this voltage it will generate:
 +
* +12V @ 1Amp
 +
* +5V @ 1.5Amp
 +
* -12V @ -0.3Amp
 +
 +
Current rating can be increased by adding multiple regulating power transistors.
 +
 +
The regulators for Tiny Demeter (and Demeter) will be build from discrete components. The reason for this are the following:
 +
* It allows "current scaling", by adding more power transistors the current handling can be increased
 +
* A discrete regulator gives better temperature stability
 +
* A discrete regulator gives lower output-noise
 +
 +
From the basic idea of having just a few linear regulators the following extras were added:
 +
* Input voltage monitor; This will warn the user when the input power source voltage is too low. (If the input voltage is below a certain threshold the +12V stability cannot be guaranteed, probably causing problems in the HPSDR system.)
 +
* Temperature regulator/monitor; Due to the nature of linear regulators the power dissipation will be around 15 Watts (without extra regulating transistors).
 +
* Crow-bars for each supply voltage; For added safety
 +
* Shunt-resistors to measure the current for each supply-voltage
 +
* Input protection circuit; probably consists of a fuse and a diode OR a fuse and an electronic switch (switch only closes when the input voltage has the right polarity).
 +
 +
The board itself will have a:
 +
* An ATX 20pin power connector attached to its PCB, so it plugs in directly on Atlas
 +
 +
OR
 +
 +
* An ATX 20pin power connector attached to a short cable and mounting brackets which can be used to mount Tiny Demeter on the mounting holes of Atlas
 +
 +
The proposed schematic block-diagram can be found below:
 +
 +
== Design Ideas ==
 +
 +
Here some references are made to components and ideas which I have in mind for the Tiny Demeter design:
 +
 +
'''Transformers for the switcher:'''
 +
 +
* http://www.bourns.com/pdfs/pm600_610_620_series.pdf
 +
* http://www.cooperbussmann.com/3/CoiltronicsFinder.html
 +
 +
=== Linear regulator ===
 +
 +
*discrete: see schematic
 +
*Linear Technology LT3080
 +
 +
=== Crow Bar ===
 +
 +
[[Image:crowbar.jpg|thumb|300px|Basic schematic diagram of the crowbar circuit. Component values are for a voltage around 20V]]
 +
 +
The principle of the regulator with the discrete components:
 +
 +
[[Media:Regulator.pdf]]
 +
 +
The best topology for the switcher has to be determined. At this moment a Push-Pull configuration looks very promising. This will generate the least harmonics as the duty-cycle of the switcher is close to 50%. To get an idea of a push pull switcher one can look here: http://sound.westhost.com/project89.htm
 +
 +
Please note: THIS IS NOT THE DESIGN FOR DEMETER, ONLY AN EXAMPLE OF THE TOPOLOGY.
 +
 +
=== Suggestion from OZ1HFT ===
 +
I do not know if this topology makes to much noise. According to the inventor, it can be designed to be low-noised. The primary patents has expired. Please consider the isolated Cuk converter, but not the Integrated Magnetics variant:
 +
* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%86uk_converter
 +
* Other sources in english: http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%86uk-konverter#Kilder.2Freferencer
 +
 +
Highlights:
 +
* input and output can be higher and/or lower than the other.
 +
* In CCM both the input and output can be designed to pulsate as little as possible.
 +
* If the diode is paralleled by a switch - and the switch is paralleled by a diode the converter can be bidirectional - good when using an accumulator - also as an UPS.
 +
 +
Components propositions:
 +
* The Cuk capacitor might be a few paralleled ceramic capacitors: (unknown if OK and low-ESR enough) CAP CER 2.2UF 100V X7R 1210: http://search.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Detail&name=587-1778-1-ND
 +
** Ceramic capacitors are better than electrolytics and do not dry out: [http://powerelectronics.com/passive_components_packaging_interconnects/capacitors/708PET24.pdf Aug 1, 2007, powerelectronics.com: Stacked-Ceramic Caps Brave High Temperatures]
 +
*** [http://search.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Detail&name=587-1397-1-ND CAP CER 100UF 6.3V Y5V 1210]
 +
*** [http://search.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Detail&name=445-1391-1-ND CAP CER 10UF 16V Y5V 1206 Low ESR]
 +
* If an over-current detector is needed, it could be a bead current transformer - or this cheap 65uA comparator LMV7239 with 45nS propagation delay. Another solution is to sample the MOSFET-switch on-voltage - as used in this SEPIC-smps: http://dren.dk/carpower.html
 +
* Maybe this smps controller can be used (might not be useful for CCM...): ucc38xx - e.g. UCC3803 (4V UVLO) and UCC3802 (8V UVLO): http://focus.ti.com/docs/prod/folders/print/ucc3803.html , http://search.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Detail?name=296-11466-5-ND - improved: UC3843, UCC38C43, MIC38HC43, MIC38C43, SG3843, KA3843, ISL8843, TL3843, ISL8843.
 +
* Maybe use this software PWM PIC-controller?:
 +
** GPL - do not know if this is compatible with this sites copyright: [http://panteltje.com/panteltje/pic/pwr_pic/ A Microchip 16F690 PIC as universal PWM controller for power supply applications] Quote: "...Here you find the source code for a Microchip 16F690 PIC assembler program that makes that chip behave like an universal switchmode controller with LCD display...For this reason the current and voltage control is in real time, and not software dependent, other then the initialisation of the chip. No interrupts or routines in the main code are involved in the control of the output voltage or current..."
 +
** [http://panteltje.com/panteltje/pic/index.html main page].
 +
 +
=== Preliminary design ===
 +
 +
The following documents contain a part of the design of Tiny Demeter. "Tiny Demeter design.pdf" contains (some) engineering notes. The file "Schematic Prints.pdf" contains the schematic of the switcher, however without the correct values for the components. You can use it to get a general idea of the DC/DC converter design. More details of the design will be added soon!
 +
 +
* Design notes:
 +
[[Media:Tiny_Demeter_design.pdf]]
 +
 +
* Preliminary (partial) design:
 +
[[Media:Schematic_Prints.pdf]]
 +
 +
--[[User:PE1RGE|PE1RGE]] 08:36, 1st August 2008 (PDT)
 +
 +
[[Category:Proposed hardware]]

Latest revision as of 12:08, 21 April 2011

Project Leader: Jeroen, PE1RGE

"Demeter" is the project-name for the HPSDR power supply. Although power supplies are widely available, Demeter will be specifically designed for the HPSDR project.

On the 13th of June 2008, Tiny Demeter is added to the Demeter page. Tiny Demeter has a simpler design. Tiny Demeter will be more suitable for experimenters and allow us to gain some experience before constructing Demeter.

Further information will be presented on this page when it becomes available.

73 Jeroen PE1RGE

Result of the discussion on the HPSDR mailing-list (11th June 2007):

DEMETER SPECIFICATIONS

Input

  • 13.8 Volt DC (always 13.8 V or is there a supply range, see remark below)
  • 110 Vac (mains)
  • 230 Vac (mains)
  • Battery (13.8 Volt) input with automatic switchover, Depth of Discharge Quote: "...The recommended end-of-discharge voltage for the SLA is 1.75V/cell..." 1.75*6=10.5V (lowest voltage), Charging the Lead Acid Battery Quote: "...Correctly setting the cell-voltage limit is critical. A typical voltage limit is from 2.30V to 2.45V...", 2.45*6=14.7V (highest voltage).
1. Standby transformer – Used for the GPS and OCXO 2. Standby rectifier and buffercapacitor 3. Switch – Switches between mains and battery power 4. Linear regulator 5. Overvoltage protection 6. Solid state (?) mains power switch 7. Power transformer 8. Power rectifiers and buffercapacitors (positive + negative voltage) 9. Switch – Switches between battery, mains and external power 10. Step-up converter 11. Linear regulator +12Volt 12. Overvoltage protection +12Volt 13. Charger (optional) 14. Step-down converter 15. Linear regulator +5Volt 16. Overvoltage protection +5Volt 17. Inverter – generates negative supply from the positive supply 18. Switch – Switches between inverter and mains power 19. Linear regulator –12Volt 20. Overvoltage protection –12Volt 21. Passive filter 22. Overvoltage protection for U++ (Could be used for a PA) 23. USB-Hub – one port used for communication with Demeter 24. PIC controller 25. Temperature sensor(s) 26. Analog to digital converter (for voltage and current) 27. Analog multiplexer 28. Controlled fan (forced air cooling)

Input connector

Powerpole connector for DC 13.8 Volt
Mains connector: National standard

Output voltages

Remote switchable voltages
+5 Volt @ …. Amps
+12 Volt @ ….. Amps
-12 Volt @ ….. Amps

Standby supply (for GPS-engine and OCXO)

Constant on
+5 Volt
+15 Volt
+24 Volt (depends on OCXO used, if possible user definable/adjustable)

Output connector

ATX-connector
DIN 41612 (Atlas connectors)

Protection

Input protection (high/low voltage, polarity)
Output protection (current limiting, voltage crowbar)

Monitoring

Input voltage
Output voltage
Output currents
Temperature

Power supply communication

Atlas backplane
USB-bus
1 wire interface (controlled by a board on Atlas)
Dumb-interface using the pins T7 and T8 on the Atlas

Connection to the HPSDR

Using the ATX power connector, communication via the USB bus
Using the DIN41612 connector using the Atlas backplane for communication

Position of the power supply

On the Atlas backplane
In a separate box (outside/inside Pandora)

HPSDR configuration

Ozymandias - interface module
Mercury – receiver (5V @ 500mA, 12V @ 200mA, -12V not used)
Penelope – transmitter (5V @ 300mA, 12V @ 200mA, -12V not used))
Alexiares - RF Bandpass Filters
Gibraltar - frequency standard
Epimetheus - antenna and other switching
Measured: Ozy + Janus: +12v @ 200mA, +5v @ 180 ma, -12v @ 70 ma

Questions/remarks

Switching or Linear?
Internal/External?
Power dissipation (Convection cooling/ forced air-cooling)?
Do we need computer monitoring of voltages and currents?
Include an USB-HUB (use one of the ports for the power supply communication)?
Configuration (to use or not to use the SDR-1000)? People who use it in combination with the SDR-1000 need less power from the power-supply and are using a custom built supply or the SDR-1000 power supply.
Will the 13.8Volt really be 13.8Volt or “something” between 11.0 Volt and 15 Volt? In other words: How many people are going to use the HPSDR mobile?
Linear (A “lot of heat”, not “green”, easy to construct and trouble-shoot)
Switching (Less heat, more “green”, more noise, more difficult to construct)
Transformers: From my opinion there will always be a normal mains-transformer, both in the switching and the linear power supply option. Building a switcher for 110Vac/230Vac is too dangerous and complicated (safety regulations) for (less experienced) home-builders. The switcher will be situated in the low-voltage part.

Tiny Demeter

Based on the Teamspeak Session from 31st of May 2008 the idea arose to develop a simpler power supply. The working title for this supply became Tiny Demeter.

Tiny Demeter block-diagram

This supply could be handy for: - experimenters - people who want a simple configuration - temporary solution unitl Demeter becomes available

Tiny Demeter uses the station power supply as main-source. It expects a fairly well regulated 13.6 till 13.8Volts. From this voltage it will generate:

  • +12V @ 1Amp
  • +5V @ 1.5Amp
  • -12V @ -0.3Amp

Current rating can be increased by adding multiple regulating power transistors.

The regulators for Tiny Demeter (and Demeter) will be build from discrete components. The reason for this are the following:

  • It allows "current scaling", by adding more power transistors the current handling can be increased
  • A discrete regulator gives better temperature stability
  • A discrete regulator gives lower output-noise

From the basic idea of having just a few linear regulators the following extras were added:

  • Input voltage monitor; This will warn the user when the input power source voltage is too low. (If the input voltage is below a certain threshold the +12V stability cannot be guaranteed, probably causing problems in the HPSDR system.)
  • Temperature regulator/monitor; Due to the nature of linear regulators the power dissipation will be around 15 Watts (without extra regulating transistors).
  • Crow-bars for each supply voltage; For added safety
  • Shunt-resistors to measure the current for each supply-voltage
  • Input protection circuit; probably consists of a fuse and a diode OR a fuse and an electronic switch (switch only closes when the input voltage has the right polarity).

The board itself will have a:

  • An ATX 20pin power connector attached to its PCB, so it plugs in directly on Atlas

OR

  • An ATX 20pin power connector attached to a short cable and mounting brackets which can be used to mount Tiny Demeter on the mounting holes of Atlas

The proposed schematic block-diagram can be found below:

Design Ideas

Here some references are made to components and ideas which I have in mind for the Tiny Demeter design:

Transformers for the switcher:

Linear regulator

  • discrete: see schematic
  • Linear Technology LT3080

Crow Bar

Basic schematic diagram of the crowbar circuit. Component values are for a voltage around 20V

The principle of the regulator with the discrete components:

Media:Regulator.pdf

The best topology for the switcher has to be determined. At this moment a Push-Pull configuration looks very promising. This will generate the least harmonics as the duty-cycle of the switcher is close to 50%. To get an idea of a push pull switcher one can look here: http://sound.westhost.com/project89.htm

Please note: THIS IS NOT THE DESIGN FOR DEMETER, ONLY AN EXAMPLE OF THE TOPOLOGY.

Suggestion from OZ1HFT

I do not know if this topology makes to much noise. According to the inventor, it can be designed to be low-noised. The primary patents has expired. Please consider the isolated Cuk converter, but not the Integrated Magnetics variant:

Highlights:

  • input and output can be higher and/or lower than the other.
  • In CCM both the input and output can be designed to pulsate as little as possible.
  • If the diode is paralleled by a switch - and the switch is paralleled by a diode the converter can be bidirectional - good when using an accumulator - also as an UPS.

Components propositions:

Preliminary design

The following documents contain a part of the design of Tiny Demeter. "Tiny Demeter design.pdf" contains (some) engineering notes. The file "Schematic Prints.pdf" contains the schematic of the switcher, however without the correct values for the components. You can use it to get a general idea of the DC/DC converter design. More details of the design will be added soon!

  • Design notes:

Media:Tiny_Demeter_design.pdf

  • Preliminary (partial) design:

Media:Schematic_Prints.pdf

--PE1RGE 08:36, 1st August 2008 (PDT)